Monday, April 30, 2018

Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 12, Part A

Cyril of Jerusalem

Lecture 12, Part A

And the Lord spoke again unto Ahaz, saying, ‘Ask you a sign....’ ”  and “Behold!  A virgin[i] shall conceive, and bear a son, and shall call His name Emmanuel….” — Isaiah 7:10-14

Summary: It is just as important that we confess and realize that Jesus is sinless man, born of the Virgin Mary in time[ii], Emmanuel [God with us]; as we confess His Deity, eternal.[iii]  It is just as evil to deny the humanity of Christ, as it is to deny His Deity: for He was, from conception onward, ever, “Word made man.”  Still, we will always be beset with heretics that claim that Jesus is the fruit of ordinary human copulation; or, by numerous other devices, claim either that Jesus was not God, not man, or similar combinations of lies.[iv]  Of Jesus’s development as God-man, we have many evidences and signs from the Prophets.

Preview: 1.  We hymn the Virgin-born God.[v]  She gave birth to the God-man.[vi]  It is neither holy to worship the man [without His Godhead], “nor religious to say that He is God only without the Manhood.”  There is no profit or salvation without this confession.  “Let us confess the presence of Him who is both King and Physician.  For Jesus the King when about to become our Physician, girded Himself with the linen of humanity, and healed that which was sick.  The perfect Teacher of babes[vii] became a babe among babes, that He might give wisdom to the foolish. The Bread of heaven came down on earth that He might feed the hungry.”  2.  To the Jews who set Him at nought, we put this question, was Esaias correct to call Him, Emmanuel, the virgin-born, or was Esaias, a Prophet [of the living God] wrong.[viii]  3.  “Let the Jews, then, be led astray, since they so will: but let the Church of God be glorified.  For we receive God the Word made Man in truth, not, as heretics say, of the will of man and woman, but of The Virgin and the Holy Ghost according to the Gospel, Made Man, not in seeming but in truth.  “Others [heretics] say that the Christ is not God, made Man, but a man, made God.  For they dared to say that not He — the pre-existent Word — was made Man; but a certain man was by advancement crowned.”[ix]  4.  “Believe that He the Only-begotten Son of God.”  Believe also that “the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us.”  Since then there is much controversy, and the battle has many forms, come, let us by the grace of Christ, and the prayers of those who are present, resolve each question.”  5.  Why did Jesus come down?  “Unless thou learn from the Holy Scriptures concerning the Virgin, and the place, the time, and the manner, receive not testimony from [mere living] man.”[x]  Receive, instead, the thousand-year-old prophesy [recorded in Scripture].  Christ came down for the sake of the image of God in man.  “A wooden image of an earthly king is held in honor; how much more a rational image of God?”  While this pinnacle of Creation [Adam] was sporting in Paradise, he was seduced into being cast out of Paradise, because of the Devil’s envy.  6.  Later, Cain murdered Abel; men were destroyed by flood; fire fell from heaven on Sodom.  God chose Israel; but the Israelites worshipped a calf; Prophets were sent to cure the Israelites: but, their disease was not overcome.  7.  “The Prophets said, Who shall give salvation out of Sion?”  For they knew that they had failed irretrievably: so they cried to God to retrieve the Israelites.  8.  “The Lord heard the prayer of the Prophets … He sent forth His Son … as healer.”  Not secretly either; “O you that bringest good tidings to Zion, go up to the high mountain. Speak to the cities of Judah.  What am I to speak?  Behold our God! Behold!  He came to His own and His own received Him not.”  I come to gather all nations and tongues.  9.  Solomon built a house when he had heard David say these things: for God will dwell among men.  Later, Magi asked for the “King of the Jews”; while Herod inquired where Christ was to be born.  10.  Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Sion, shout, O daughter of Jerusalem.  Behold! Your King comes unto you, just and having salvation.”[xi]  Behold! Your King comes unto you, just, and having salvation: He is meek, and riding upon an ass and a young foal.”  11.  And His feet shall stand in that day upon the Mount of Olives which is before Jerusalem on the east.”  12.  A third sign, “Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear: then shall the lame man leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be distinct.”  A fourth sign, “The Lord Himself enters into judgment with the elders of His people, and with the princes thereof.”

[i] St. Cyril is clearly teaching from the Septuagint: for the Greek has παρθένος, virgin; whereas, the Hebrew has הָעַלְמָ֗ה, young woman.  Obviously, the Rabbis who translated the Old Testament from Hebrew into Greek (circa 200 BC), understood that young woman was not a suitable translation in this context: for young woman is not a sign at all, let alone the miracle anticipated by the context.  We should logically conclude that virgin is the only reasonable translation: but, the Rabbis came to this conclusion two hundred years before Christ was born.  Who knows who else holds this certainty from the time of Isaiah (eighth century BC), six hundred years earlier than the Septuagint; surely Isaiah did: but, we have no surviving written record, older than Septuagint.

[ii] 6-4 BC

[iii] Unborn as well: for, His Deity did not originate by a process of birth, physical or spiritual; His Deity has no origin, since He was always inseparably with the Father, yet distinct from Him.  Here is the rub.  We still do not call Mary, Christotokos (Christ bearer): for that which is conceived in her by the Spirit and born of her is already both God and man.  The Son of God added to Himself a complete and perfect human nature from the instant of miraculous conception: so, there never is a time from conception on, during her pregnancy, when Mary is not Theotokos (God bearer), to emphasize the fact that Jesus is God-man (Theanthropos or Theandros), rather than mere man.  Since this is the agreed upon language it is unnecessarily argumentative, disruptive, and even schismatic to pursue the Christotokos language, ever again: the Fathers concluded that Christotokos was simply not strong enough wording to convey the reality.  Still, we can see how this might not be so easily sorted out in the early fourth century.  The Theanthropos-tokos or Theandros-tokos, would have been excessively cumbersome.

[iv] The Mormons deny the Complete Deity of Christ; yet, still wish to be known as Christians.  Mormonism is not Christianity: for it claims that Jesus, the man, grew into his deity to become son; that Adam, the man grew into his deity to become father; that we, mere men, grow into our deities to become gods; as well as much more other foolishness.

[v] The dispute was whether Mary gave birth to the God-man, or merely the man, Jesus.  The conclusion was that Mary gave birth to the God-man: hence, she is called God-bearer, not man-bearer.  Moreover, she is honored with the name Ever-virgin; which could either be a miraculous physical reality, or an equally miraculous spiritual truth: we cannot say: for we were not eyewitnesses of the event.

[vi] John 1:1-14

[viii] A prophet who utters as false-prophecy is under the death penalty; consequently, either the highly and universally respected Isaiah, must be rejected in his entirety; or, the Jews must confess that they are wrong.

[ix] Note that St. Cyril also condemns the idea of man, made God, which is exactly what the Mormons profess.

[x] John 5:34

[xi] Zechariah 9:9

Saturday, April 28, 2018

Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 11, Part B

Cyril of Jerusalem

Lecture 11, Part B

God, who at sundry times and in various manners spoke in times past unto the Fathers by the Prophets, has in these last days spoken unto us by His Son.” — Hebrews 1:1

Summary: These great mysteries escape our understanding; we must not be ashamed of that: for, we cannot understand the mystery of Godhood.  Christ, the Only-begotten Word is equally Creator with the Father [and the Spirit]; yet, he also becomes man, who alone as God-man is crucified; The Son is also a distinct, but not separate, Person: God is One in Essence and undivided.

Preview: 13.  “Be not ashamed to confess your ignorance, since you share ignorance with Angels.”  Only God understands the mystery of Godhood; The Father knows the Son, as the Son also knows the Father: these truths are repeated many times for our safety.  14.  The begetting of the Only-begotten is very God: for true God cannot beget false God.  This generation is timeless.  Emmanuel means, God with us.  15.  This [timelessly] begotten [God][i], later became man [in time].  16.  “A third testimony to Christ’s Godhead” is found in Esaias in almost the same words as the “Gospels: The Father is in Me, and I am in the Father.”[ii]  17.  “The Son then is Very God, having the Father in Himself, not changed into the Father; for the Father was not made man, but the Son.”  The Son suffered, not the Father.[iii]  Their persons are distinct, [not divided or separated]; “let not their worship be separated.”  18.  He that has seen Me, has seen the Father.”[iv]  God was He who begot, God He who was begotten; God of all Himself, yet entitling the Father His own God.  For He is not ashamed to say, I ascend unto My Father and your Father, and to My God and your God.”[v]  19.  Father: “in one way Mine, by nature; in another yours, by adoption.”  God: “in one way Mine, as His true and Only-begotten Son, and in another way yours, as His workmanship.”  “Exalt not yourself, lest you fall: think upon those things only which have been commanded you.”[vi]  Learn the begetter first; then the begotten.  20.  “For godliness it suffices you to know, as we have said, that God has One Only Son, One naturally begotten; who began NOT His being when He was born in Bethlehem, but Before All Ages.”[vii]  21.  “Silenced be every heresy which brings in different creators and makers of the world; silenced the tongue which blasphemes the Christ the Son of God; let them be silenced who say that the sun is the Christ, for He is the sun's Creator, not the sun which we see. Silenced be they who say that the world is the workmanship of Angels, who wish to steal away the dignity of the Only-begotten.”  22.  “When the Father wished to form all things, the Son created all things at the Father's bidding, that the act of bidding might secure to the Father His absolute authority , and yet the Son in turn might have authority over His own workmanship, and neither the Father be separated from the lordship over His own works, nor the Son rule over things created by others, but by Himself.”[viii]  23.  “Not that the Father wanted strength to create the works Himself, but because He willed that the Son should reign over His own workmanship, God Himself giving Him the design of the things to be made.  For honoring His own Father the Only-begotten says, The Son can do nothing of Himself, but what He sees the Father do; for whatever things He does, these also does the Son likewise.”[ix]  My Father works hitherto, and I work.”[x]  24.  “Christ then is the Only-begotten Son of God, and Maker of the world.  For He was in the world, and the world was made by Him; and He came unto His own, as the Gospel teaches us;”[xi] He also is Maker of things seen and unseen.[xii]

[i] Psalm 45:7; Hebrews 1:8-9

[ii] John 10:30; 14:11; 17:11, 21

[iii] This is a heresy known as Patripassianism.

[iv] John 14:9

[v] John 20.17

[vi] This is the fifth-time St. Cyril has referenced the Deuterocanon as Scripture.  Sirach 3:2

[vii] John 8:56, 58; 17:24

[viii] We are not comfortable with this illustration: for it seems to carry an implied servitude of the Son in His Deity, not in His humanity, to the Father.  Their mutual Godhead is only One Godhead; yet, their acts as Persons seem to differ: this is not a mystery for us to solve.  Suffice it to say that we know the Father did not die on the Cross; we also know that the relationship between the Persons is not one of altered modes.

[ix] John 5:19

[x] John 5:17

[xi] John 1:10-11; Colossians 1:16-17; Hebrews 1:2

[xii] If St. Cyril seems repetitious to us, we must remember that some of his Catechumens may not be able to read or write; they certainly do not have personal study books to take home and keep, reviewing from time to time.  St. Cyril is compelled to embed the lessons on their memories.

Friday, April 27, 2018

Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 11, Part A

Cyril of Jerusalem

Lecture 11, Part A

God, who at sundry times and in various manners spoke in times past unto the Fathers by the Prophets, has in these last days spoken unto us by His Son.” — Hebrews 1:1

Summary: There is, at last, only One True Christ, Who, is the complete and perfect expressed Word and Wisdom of God: “for in Him dwells all the fullness of the Godhead bodily.”[i]  This is what the Spirit teaches; so, we need not busy ourselves with religious teachings and wild philosophical speculations about God[ii] that are not found in Scripture.

Preview: 1.  We must hope, not in the many “called” or figurative Christs; but, in the One True Christ, the One having the dignity of eternal Priesthood from the Father, the Only-Begotten: as our profession of Faith[iii] guards us.  2.  Jesus, the natural Son of God, without brother, is called Only-Begotten, because of [His] dignity of Godhead, and [eternal] generation from the Father.[iv]  3.  “Our Lord Jesus Christ … became man; He was not mere man by nature; which Peter blurts out, and Christ blesses as Truth.  4.  Any doubts are clarified by the words, “but a Son eternally begotten by an inscrutable and incomprehensible generation.”  Others received [adopted] sonship; but, He, not receiving sonship, was Son of the Father before all ages.  5.  So the word, generation, in the genealogies refers [only] to His flesh: son of Abraham, son of David.  But, as Son by the standard of Godhead, without time, place, or genealogical descent.  6.  “Believe thou therefore on Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, and a Son Only-Begotten”; gift of God’s love for the world; source of life; glory of the Father; before whom devils tremble.  7.  “He is then the Son of God by nature and not by adoption”: timelessly perfect and complete, without origin, by eternal begetting; not by an imperfect progression.  8.  So, unlike human generation; as when Abraham begot Isaac: for God was not without a Son previously.  9.  Not like a teacher begets disciples, by adoption of grace, by the will of God[v], by water and the Spirit: for at Jesus’ baptism He says, “This is My Son,” not, “This has now become My Son.”  10.  Nor as mind begets word, dispersing into air, thus ending; but, as Word [the person] “substantially existing and living; not spoken”; but, speaking.  11.  Nor as wisdom that man can understand; but, as [Wisdom] that only God Himself knows, between Father and Son[vi]: for all creation is ignorant of such Wisdom.  Thus, man should not be downcast over his ignorance of things that even Angels cannot explain.  12.  The curiosity of bold men amazes, insofar as they are ignorant of created angelic ranks; yet, attempt to scrutinize the Creator of Angels.  The Holy Ghost knows all the deep things of God; yet, has not written of them in Scripture: “why do we busy ourselves about what is not written?”

[i] Colossians 2:9

[ii] St. Cyril does not reject legitimate secular studies here: agriculture, art, mathematics, music, poetry, science, and may others.  What he rejects are wild cataphatic assertions about the Godhead which can only be described apophatically, as a confession of ignorance.  Others, taking The Creed as a declaration of what we know, rather than a confession of what we do not know, have made The Creed into and instrument of dictatorship and oppression: committing terrible atrocities, a "Jehovian Terror", justified by false understanding.

[iii] We believe that St. Cyril intends The Nicene Creed (325), or perhaps even Then Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed (381).  We believe that St. Cyril (313-386) was instrumental in the formation of this revised creed; especially, since his lectures on the Holy Spirit will show a more well-developed view than that put into words around 325.

[iv] We have added words of clarification; yet, these are not our mere opinion: for what else can these sentences mean, other than that Christ possesses all the fullness of the Godhead, Godhood, or nature of God by eternal generation.  There is no need for these statements at all if they do not indicate the complete and perfect Deity of Christ by eternal generation from the Father.

[v] John 1:12-13; 1 Corinthians 4:15

[vi] St. Cyril was around twelve when The Creed was first presented.  He was about twenty-two when he was ordained deacon (circa 335).  There is every reason to believe that he is following the sequential structure of The Creed here.  He does not discuss the details of the Godhead of the Spirit, such as Wisdom: for that topic, has yet to be treated in The Creed.  The Spirit, of course, fully shares in the Wisdom that God alone is able to comprehend.

Thursday, April 26, 2018

Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 10

Cyril of Jerusalem

Lecture 10

For though there be that are called gods, whether in heaven or on earth; yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One Lord Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him.” — 1 Corinthians 8:5-6[i]

Summary: The Lord Jesus Christ, God, Son of God, bears myriad names indicative of His condescending service to mankind; for which there are equally many witnesses of His works: bestowing on us the name, Christian, that men may see our good works shining, and glorify our Father.

Preview: 1.  We ought to believe in the Father and the Son: “for he that denies the Son, the same has not the Father.”  Denial of the Door, denies access to the Father; denial of the Son, eliminates all possible knowledge of the Father… wrath remains; denial of the Only-begotten earns the Father’s indignation.  2.  To express piety to God, one must worship the Son: otherwise, one’s service is rejected; do not listen to what the Jew says: for the Psalmist says, “You are My Son.”  Heed the Prophets, not the Jews.[ii]  3.  “Believe thou In One Lord Jesus Christ, the Only-Begotten Son of God.”  For [Jesus] is Door, Way, Sheep, Shepherd, Lion, Stone.  He shares [the Father’s] Godhead, Godhood, or nature.  4.  He is called Christ, “eternally[iii] anointed by the Father to His High-Priesthood on behalf of men.”  He is called Dead, “alone free among the dead”; Son of Man, not generated from earth; Lord, having by nature eternal Lordship; Jesus, for His healing; Son, not by adoption: having many titles; yet, being only One.  5.  “The Savior comes in various forms” for the benefit of each individual; He is Vine to those needing gladness; Door to those needing entry; High Priest to those needing prayer; Sheep to those needing sacrifice.  He is made all things to all men”; so, being unchangeable by nature, “He adapts Himself to our infirmities.”  He is Lord in truth by nature, not by advancement.  6.  Christ the Lord is He who was born in the city of David[iv] Lord with the Father even before His Incarnation,” as proved by Genesis 1:26.  7.  Moses saw the Rock that followed them, considering the value of the reproach of Christ; he said, “Show me Yourself….”  His brightness frightened the disciples; who with us can only see according to our little capacity [of faith].  8.  “… because of the Jews.  For our object is to prove that the Lord Jesus Christ was with the Father.  The Lord then says to Moses, I will … proclaim the name of the Lord before you.  Being Himself the Lord, what Lord does He proclaim?  You see how He was covertly teaching the godly doctrine of the Father and the Son.”  9.  Receive a second proof, “The Lord said to my Lord, sit Thou on My right hand. The Lord says this to the Lord, not to a servant, but to the Lord of all, and His own Son, to whom He put all things in subjection.”  10.  He is Lord of all things; Mary and Gabriel are His servants: “except nothing from His Lordship: for whether Angels, or Archangels, or principalities, or powers, or any created thing.”  For though there be many that are called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, and so on, yet to us there is One God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in Him; and One Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom are all things, and we through Him.[v]  11.  He is called by two names, Jesus Christ; Jesus, because He saves — Christ, because He is a Priest”: which are typified in Aaron surnamed Christ, and Joshua or Jesus.  12.  “There is One Lord Jesus Christ, a wondrous name, indirectly announced beforehand by the Prophets”; which the Jews should have known, but denied: yet He received this Name from Angels, not from men.  13.  Jesus means Savior in Hebrew, but Healer in Greek; “since He is physician of souls and bodies….”  14.  For the Jews allow that He is Jesus, but not Christ.  Who is the liar, but he that denies that Jesus is the Christ?”  “… After the Order of Melchizedek.  He received not the High-Priesthood from bodily succession, nor was He anointed with oil prepared by man, but before all ages by the Father; and He so far excels the others as with an oath He is made Priest: For they are priests without an oath, but He with an oath by Him that said, The Lord swore, and will not repent.”[vi]  15.  The Jews denied Christ, while devils confessed Him.  The Prophet [John], Moses, Isaiah, Jeremiah, all the [other] Prophets, even the Samaritan woman knew Him: but, not the Chief Priests.  16.  Christ our High Priest has given us a new name, the name Christian: the Jews have no new name.  17.  Men call friends for witnesses; but, Christ calls His former enemy [Paul], “For we preach not ourselves, but Christ Jesus as Lord, and ourselves your servants for Jesus' sake.”  18.  I am … filled with wonder at the … Holy Spirit; how He … to Paul the former persecutor gave the privilege of writing fourteen [Epistles]”; while all the others wrote only few.  “Is not this he that was formerly a persecutor?”[vii]  But the grace of God was exceeding abundant in [Paul].”[viii]  19.  The Father, the Spirit, Gabriel, Mary, Egypt, Symeon, Anna, John, Jordan, Tiberias, blind, lame, dead, devils, wind, loaves, the wood of the cross, the palm tree, Gethsemane, Golgotha, the Sepulcher, the stone, the sun, the darkness, the light, the Mount of Olives, the clouds, the gates of heaven, His enemies, the Apostles, the shadow of Peter, the articles of Paul, Persians, Goths, and converts, all, bear witness to Him.  20.  “You are called a Christian: be tender of the name; let not our Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, be blasphemed through you: but rather let your good works shine before men.”[ix]

[i] To use this quote from the Apostle Paul as false proof of St. Cyril’s supposed semi-Arianism is a foul ball, really hitting below the belt: for if this verse makes Cyril a semi-Arian, it also condemns Paul with the same words.  Cyril clearly affirms that Father, Son, and Spirit are co-eternal, and con-substantial at several other places.

[ii] Amazing advice, since nowadays everybody wants to hear what the Jews have to say… the same old deceptive and devious nonsense.

[iii] Observe the necessary co-eternality with the Father expressed here.

[v] 1 Corinthians 8:5-6

[vi] Hebrews 7:21

[vii] Acts 9:21

[viii] 1 Timothy 1:14

[ix] Matthew 5:16

Wednesday, April 25, 2018

Cyril of Jerusalem, Lecture 9

Cyril of Jerusalem

Lecture 9

“Who is this that hides counsel from Me, and keeps words in his heart, and thinks to hide them from Me?” — Job 38:2-3

Summary: God cannot be seen with eyes of flesh; only the Son and Spirit see Him; if even the spiritual eyes of Prophets tremble at His glimpse, that which cannot be understood.  Yet we can see His works and glorify Him; rather than finding fault and cursing Him: for His works are truly amazing.

Preview: 1.  It is impossible to see God with eyes of flesh: only the Son [and Spirit] have truly seen Him; even Ezekiel only “saw the likeness of [His] glory”; whence, “he fell to earth from fear.”  If such a sight brought pain to the prophets, the rest of us would surely die: for God veils Himself from our sight.  He Who rends the heavens caused Ezekiel’s collapse; even Daniel fell down at the presence of the Angel Gabriel; we would have perished, had we seen Him.  2.  Yet, “from [His] works … it is possible to attain some conception of His power”, in proportion as God lifts men up: as Solomon testifies.  3.  So, “to comprehend the nature of God is impossible: for, as Ezekiel shows us, we cannot yet understand his description of the Cherubim, wheels, or throne; let alone understand Him who sits on that throne: the Invisible and Ineffable God: “but it is in our power to send up praises of His glory for His works that are seen.”  4.  “We Believe in One God, the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth, and of All Things Visible and Invisible; in order that we may remember that the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ is the same as He that made the heaven and the earth, and that we may make ourselves safe against the wrong paths of the godless heretics, who”, with the eyes of flesh are blinded.  5.  “What fault have they to find? … “They, who ought to have been struck with amazement on beholding the vaultings of the heavens….”  6.  But what?  Is there not cause to wonder … at the constitution of the sun?”  “… the Psalmist also says of them, Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night proclaims knowledge.  For to the heretics who have no ears, they all but cry aloud….”  7.  Tolerate none who say one is a “Creator of the light, and another of darkness;” who are vexed at that which brings rest to man, with wisdom, Psalms, prayers, remembrance of our sins.  Admit not such an evil thought: for night is also “good and useful”.  8.  The should have been astonished at sun and moon; more so by the stars: which mark seasons, navigation channels; which are not for astrology or [omens] of birth.  9.  Consider rain and clouds; wind and ice; snow like wool; mist like ashes: becoming wine in vines, oil in olives, grain for bread, and “fruits of all kinds.”  10.  “Should the Creator have been blasphemed?  [because of these wonders]  Or worshipped rather?”  because “of the unseen works of His wisdom.”  Admire also the reed, creepers, beasts, cattle, trees, food, gold, silver, brass, iron, stone, fish, and birds.  11.  [Admire] the “great wide sea”: its fishes, whales, amphibians; its breadth and depth; its force of waves; and Him Who sets its bounds.  12.  Who understands birds: some sing, others have colorful plumage, others soar?  Who understands their Maker?  13.  What man know the names of all beasts, or discerns their physiology?  “how shall we comprehend [their] Maker?”  For from one command sprang forth such a multitude, so many resembling man in some characteristic: industriousness, sloth, or some other.  14.  “Is not then the Artificer worthy the rather to be glorified?”  Does [Creation] immediately become useless?  Or does the usefulness of things continue?  “From this varied workmanship understand the Creator's power.”  15.  Consider your own nature.  Do you find fault with Him Who shaped your body?  The members are not the cause of sin; but, their wrong use.  How or where is a child made and nursed?  How does a boy become a youth, then a man: while no one notices the daily changes?  How is food part blood, and part flesh?  Explain the heart’s ceaseless motion; or the eyes; or how breath is distributed “to the whole body?”  16.  We have left out thousands of things, especially incorporeal and invisible, that you may abhor blasphemers; that you may love and worship the Creator of all.